Concussions are associated with severe head trauma, but they can also be caused by the most seemingly innocuous bump or jolt to the head or body. The symptoms may not be noticeable for several hours or even several days after the injury.
During a concussion, the brain takes an impact and the force from the impact causes the brain to strike the inner surface of the skull and it may rebound against the opposite side. In severe concussions the brain twists as it rebounds. The brain will swell which is when symptoms start to present themselves. In a severe injury, the swelling puts pressure on the brain stem which controls breathing and other basic life functions.
A concussion can happen even if you haven’t been knocked unconscious. The symptoms include headache, confusion, memory loss, poor balance, dizziness, feeling sluggish or groggy, feeling sad or irritable, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light or noise, blurry vision, slowed reaction time, sleep problems, and loss of consciousness. Brain or body activity may cause any symptoms to reappear or worsen, so it is best to rest both if a concussion is suspected. No studying, watching TV, working on a computer, or exercising.
It is important to report signs of a concussion to a healthcare professional as soon as possible. They are the only ones who can properly diagnose and determine readiness for a return to normal activity. Concussions can be very serious, and they can be made worse without proper care.
See the attached article for more details on concussion reaction and prevention strategies: Concussion Info
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